Cookies may be first-party or third-party cookies. “First-party” cookies are those that report as domain the website to which they refer, whereas “third-party” cookies are related to external domains. Third-party cookies are in fact always added by a “third party”, not managed by the website to which they refer. Such parties may also add first-party cookies, by storing their own cookies on the domain of the website to which they refer. The so-called “Flash cookies” (Local Shared Objects) are used in Adobe Flash Player to provide certain contents, such as video clips or animations, in order to remember settings and preferences. Flash cookies are stored on the user’s device, but are managed through another interface, not the one provided by the browser used. As regards the nature of cookies, they are of several types: technical cookies are used for the only purpose of “transmitting an electronic communication or to the extent strictly necessary for the provider of an information society service expressly requested by a subscriber or user to provide such service” (art. 122, subsec. 1, of the Code on personal data protection, d.lgs. [Legislative Decree] 2003/196, hereinafter “Privacy Code”). They are not used for any other purposes and are normally installed directly by the website owner or manager. These technical cookies, in turn, can be subdivided into: (i) navigation or session cookies, which ensure the normal navigation and use of the relevant website (by permitting, for instance, to complete a purchase or log in to access reserved areas); they are actually necessary for the proper operation of the website. (ii) Cookie analytics are equalised to technical cookies if used directly by the website manager to collect information in aggregate form regarding the number of users and how they visit the website, in order to improve the website performance. (iii) Functionality cookies, which allow the user to browse the website taking into account a series or criteria previously selected (e.g. language) in order to improve the service provided to the user. For the installation of these cookies, the consent of users is not required. Users are therefore free to block the installation of technical cookies by changing the settings of their browser (see below, “Cookie management”). It should be considered, however, that by blocking the installation of technical cookies, or subsequently removing them, the user may be prevented, entirely or in part, from accessing or using all or part of the relevant website, enabling or disabling certain functions or receiving certain services. As to the nature of cookies, in addition to the mentioned technical cookies, there are the profiling cookies. Profiling cookies aim to create user profiles and are used to send ads in line with the preferences expressed by the user when browsing the web. For the use of profiling cookies, user consent is required. In particular, the user can authorise or refuse consent for the installation of the cookies through the options provided in the relevant section (see below, “Cookie management”). In case of third-party cookies, the site to which they refer has not a direct control over the single cookies and cannot verify them (directly install or delete them). The user, however, can manage such cookies through the browser settings (see below “Cookie management”) or directly by following the instructions indicated in the third-party website.
The duration of cookies depends on the expiry date (or on a specific action, such as the closure of the browser) set upon their installation. Cookies can be: (i) temporary, or session cookies, used to store temporary information. They permit to connect the actions performed during a specific session and are removed from the computer when the browser is closed; (ii) persistent cookies, used to store information, such as the user name and password, so that the User needs not enter them again upon each visit to the website. Persistent cookies remain stored in the User’s computer even after the browser is closed.
|Chrome||Mozilla Firefox||Internet Explorer|
|1. Run the Chrome Browser 2. Click the menu on the browser toolbar next to the “add url” navigation dialog 3. Select Settings 4. Click Show advanced settings 5. In the “Privacy” section, click on the “Content settings“ button 6. In the “Cookie” section, it is possible to change the following cookie settings:• Allow local data to be set • Change local data only until browser is closed• Prevent websites from setting cookies• Block third-party cookies and website data • Manage exceptions for certain websites• Delete a cookie or all cookies For more information, visit the relevant page.||1. Run the Mozilla Firefox Browser 2. Click the menu on the browser toolbar next to the “add url” navigation dialog 3. Select Options 4. Select the Privacy panel 5. Click Show Advanced Options 6. In the “Privacy” Section, click on the “Content settings“ button 7. In the “Tracking” section, it is possible to change the following cookie settings:• Request no tracking across sites • Notify sites of your availability to be tracked• Do not express any preference regarding personal data tracking 8. From the “History” section, it is possible:• By enabling “Use custom settings” to select the “accept third-party cookies” checkbox (always, most visited sites, never) and store them for a set period (until expiry, until Firefox is closed, or ask every time)• Remove single cookies stored. For more information, visit the relevant page||1. Run the Internet Explorer Browser 2. Click the Tools button and select Internet options 3. Click the Privacy tab and, in the Settings section, change the drop-down menu according to the requested action regarding cookies:• Block all cookies• Allow all cookies • Select the sites from which cookies are to be obtained: move the cursor to an intermediate position in order not to block or allow all cookies, then click on Sites, enter a website in the Web Site Address Box, then click on Block or Allow. For more information, visit the relevant page.|
|Safari 6||Safari iOS (mobile devices)||Opera|
|1. Run the Safari Browser 2.Click Safari, select Preferences and click on Privacy 3. In the Block Cookies section, specify how Safari is to accept cookies from websites. 4. To view the sites that have stored cookies, click on Details For more information, visit the relevant page.||1. Run the Safari iOS Browser 2. Touch Settings and then Safari 3. Touch Block Cookies and select an option: “Never”, “Third-party and advertisers” or “Always” 4. To delete all cookies stored by Safari, touch Settings, then Safari and lastly Delete Cookies and data For more information, visit the relevant page.||1. Run the Opera Browser 2. Click Preferences, then Advanced, and lastly Cookie 3. Select one of the following options:• Accept all cookies• Accept cookies only from the visited site: third-party cookies and those sent by a domain other than the visited one will be refused • Never accept cookies: all cookies will never be stored For more information, visit the relevant page.|